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Profiling of volatile fragrant components in a mini-core collection of mango germplasms from seven countries

by Li Li, Xiao-Wei Ma, Ru-Lin Zhan, Hong-Xia Wu, Quan-Sheng Yao, Wen-Tian Xu, Chun Luo, Yi-Gang Zhou, Qing-Zhi Liang, Song-Biao Wang

Aroma is important in assessing the quality of fresh fruit and their processed products, and could provide good indicators for the development of local cultivars in the mango industry. In this study, the volatile diversity of 25 mango cultivars from China, America, Thailand, India, Cuba, Indonesia, and the Philippines was investigated. The volatile compositions, their relative contents, and the intervarietal differences were detected with headspace solid phase microextraction tandem gas chromatography-mass spectrometer methods. The similarities were also evaluated with a cluster analysis and correlation analysis of the volatiles. The differences in mango volatiles in different districts are also discussed. Our results show significant differences in the volatile compositions and their relative contents among the individual cultivars and regions. In total, 127 volatiles were found in all the cultivars, belonging to various chemical classes. The highest and lowest qualitative abundances of volatiles were detected in ‘Zihua’ and ‘Mallika’ cultivars, respectively. Based on the cumulative occurrence of members of the classes of volatiles, the cultivars were grouped into monoterpenes (16 cultivars), proportion and balanced (eight cultivars), and nonterpene groups (one cultivars). Terpene hydrocarbons were the major volatiles in these cultivars, with terpinolene, 3-carene, caryophyllene and α-Pinene the dominant components depending on the cultivars. Monoterpenes, some of the primary volatile components, were the most abundant aroma compounds, whereas aldehydes were the least abundant in the mango pulp. β-Myrcene, a major terpene, accounted for 58.93% of the total flavor volatile compounds in ‘Xiaofei’ (Philippens). γ-Octanoic lactone was the only ester in the total flavor volatile compounds, with its highest concentration in ‘Guiya’ (China). Hexamethyl cyclotrisiloxane was the most abundant volatile compound in ‘Magovar’ (India), accounting for 46.66% of the total flavor volatiles. A typical aldehydic aroma 2,6-di-tert-butyl-4-sec-butylphenol, was detected in ‘Gleck’. A highly significant positive correlation was detected between Alc and K, Alk and Nt, O and L. Cultivars originating from America, Thailand, Cuba, India, Indonesia and the Philippines were more similar to each other than to those from China. This study provides a high-value dataset for use in development of health care products, diversified mango breeding, and local extension of mango cultivars.

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